Historical Tracks Administrative Vicissitudes Manchu State    War of Liberation Modern Changchun
 It is a piece of fertile land where humans lived 40,000 years ago.  
In 1951, mammal fossils and corresponding relics were unearthed in Yushu, Changchun City, proving hominins here were in the Late Old Stone Age, or in the early stage of a matriarchal society. 
In 1984, a residential site of human settlement in early New Stone Age was found in Nong’an County, Changchun City. The excavation proved that the ancient humans here had entered the era of wearing clothes and thus mastered developed primitive farming and weaving technologies.   
  The earliest city that appeared in this region was called “Fuyu Realm”. From Donghan Dynasty to Xijin Dynasty, the nation of Fuyu ethnic group was subordinate to Central Plain. In 493, Fuyu Realm was toppled by the northern ethnic group Wuji. In 494, the king of Fuyu Realm was deported. He, together with his wife, went into exile in Koguryo, marking an end to the realm of Fuyu. Koguryo remained rich and powerful from Northern Wei Dynasty to its early stage, but was defeated by Tang Dynasty in 668.       
From the first year (713) of Emperor Xuanzong’s reign of Tang Dynasty, Bohai Realm emerged, with the current territory of Changchun covered in it.    
In Northern Song Dynasty, Huang Long Fu (now Nong’an County) was founded after the establishment of Liao Realm.  
  In late Northern Song Dynasty, Huang Long Fu was renamed Ji Zhou by Aguda, Chieftain of the Jurchens, in 1140. 
The region enjoyed great prosperity in the dynasties of Liao and Jin. In 1234, the Mongols finished off the Jin Dynasty, and renamed the reign Yuan, making it a nomadic place for the Mongols. 
In 1644, the reign of Qing Dynasty compiled the Mongols and Manchurians living in the region into the system of Eight Banners. Since then, the region was declared a protected area.  
   (Picture in the upper left corner: Pagoda of Liao Dynasty, built in the period from 983 to 1030, is located in Nong’an County, Changchun City, Jilin Province.)

Changchun is situated in the northeastern frontier. The ancient ethnic group Sushen dwelt here over 2000 years ago. From Han Dynasty to Western Jin Dynasty, it was subordinate to Fuyu Realm, and then to Koguryo. In the middle and late periods of Tang Dynasty, it was governed by Fuyu Fu of Bohai Realm, and then by Longan Fu under Shangjing Lu of Jin Dynasty, Kaiyuan Lu under Liaoyang Province of Yuan Dynasty, respectively. In Ming Dynasty, Tamu Wei, Chidonghe Wei and Muguhe Wei were established in Changchun.
In early Qing Dynasty, the region was still a protected area. Large-scale exploration came after Emperor Qianlong’s reign, making the population here increase dramatically. In the fifth year of Emperor Jiaqing (1800), Qing Dynasty set up Changchun Ting under Jilin Jiangjun. The Standing Committee of CPC Changchun Municipal People’s Congress ratified the Action Plan of Commemorating the 200th Anniversary of the Founding of Changchun City on January 17, 2000, marking July 8, 1800 was the day the city was founded. In the fifth year of Daoguang Emperor (1825), Changzhi Suo was relocated northward to Kuanchengzi. In the fourth year of Tongzhi Emperor (1865), the moat and city wall were established. In the fourteen year of Guangxu Emperor (1888), Changchun Ting was promoted to Changchun Fu. In March 1913, Changchun Fu was renamed Changchun County. The founding of the city lasted from 1925 to 1929. The second day after the “September 18 Incident”, Changchun fell to the Japanese troops. In March 1932, Changchun was declared capital of Manchu State with a name called “New Capital”, and then changed to “New Capital Municipality” under the State Council of Manchu State in August of the same year. The Japanese surrendered unconditionally on August 15, 1945, leading to an end of the puppet regime of Manchu State. On December 20, 1945, the Central Government of Kuomintang founded the Municipal Government of Changchun City, under the jurisdiction of Jilin Province.
On October 19, 1948, Changchun was liberated. The CPC Changchun Municipal Committee and Changchun Municipal Government marched into the city. Changchun City was changed to Changchun Special City, under the Administrative Committee of Northeast China.  
On May 9, 1949, Changchun Municipal Government was renamed Changchun Municipal People’s Government, under the jurisdiction of Jilin Province. 
On August 1, 1953, Changchun was promoted to a central municipality.  
On August 1, 1954, the Administrative Committee of Northeast China decided to make Changchun the capital city of Jilin Province. The People’s Government of Jilin Province moved from Jilin City to the new capital city Changchun on September 27, 1954.  
On February 22, 1955, the People’s Committee of Jilin Province decided to rename Changchun Municipal People’s Government Changchun Municipal People’s Committee. 
In November 1958, with the approval of the State Council, Shuangyang County, Jiutai County, Dehui County, Nong’an County and Yushu County went under the administration of Changchun City. 
On March 6, 1968, Changchun Municipal Revolutionary Committee was founded. 
On June 1, 1980, Changchun Municipal Revolutionary Committee was changed to Changchun Municipal People’s Government. 
On August 31, 1988, Jiutai County was promoted to Jiutai City (country level). 
In February 1989, Changchun was approved by the State Council as a municipality separately listed in the state plan, and given the economic management right, equal to sub-provincial level. 
On December 26, 1990, Yushu County was promoted by the State Council to Yushu City (county level). 
In July 1993, the State Council decided all capital cities were no longer municipalities separately listed in the state plan. In December of the same year, Changchun was no longer a municipality separately listed in the state plan. 
On February 25, 1994, Changchun became a sub-provincial city. 
On July 6, 1994, Dehui County was promoted to Dehui City (county level). 
In August 1995, the suburban area of Changchun City was changed to Lvyuan District; Shuangyang County to Shuangyang District; and Erdaohezi District to Erdao District. Till then, Changchun formed an administrative pattern covering six districts (Nanguan, Kuancheng, Chaoyang, Erdao, Lvyuan and Shuangyang), three county-level cities (Jiutai, Yushu and Dehui), and one county (Nong’an).
 
Manchu State is a puppet government established by the Japanese in Northeast China. 
In 1931, the Japanese army staged the “September 18 Incident”, starting their occupation of Northeast China. On March 9, 1932, Japan founded the Manchu State, appointing Puyi “ruler” and Zheng Xiaoxu “prime minister” for the era name of “Datong” under which such institutions as the ministries of civil affairs, military affairs, finance, diplomacy, law enforcement and transportation as well as the organs of legislation and inspection were founded. 
In March 1934, Japan changed “Manchu State” to the “Great Manchurian Empire”, “ruler” to “emperor”, and the era name “Datong” to “Kangde”. 
On August 15, 1945, Japan surrendered unconditionally, followed by Puyi’s abdication on August 18, marking the end of Manchu State. 

Museum of the Imperial Palace of the Manchu State
The Museum of the Imperial Palace of the Manchu State is a museum located in the northeastern part of Changchun City, Jilin Province, Northeast China. 
The palace was the official residence created by the Imperial Japanese Army for China's last emperor Puyi to live in as part of his role as Emperor of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. Approved by the People’s Government of Jilin Province, it is a cultural and historical site under provincial-level protection. It has now become an important scenic area and patriotism education base in Changchun City. 
The Manchurian Imperial Palace is a miniature version of the Forbidden City in Beijing. It includes an inner court and outer court. The outer or front court was ever used for administrative purposes and the inner or rear court as the royal residence. The palace covers an area of 137,000 square meters.
The inner court includes the private living quarters for Puyi and his family. Its main structures include Jixi Building on the west courtyard and Tongde Hall on the east courtyard. The outer court contained buildings for affairs of state. Its main buildings include Qianmin Building, Huanyuan Building and Jiale Hall. The architecture of the buildings is in a wide range of styles: Chinese, Japanese, and European.
Within the complex are gardens, including rockeries and a fish pond, a swimming pool, air-raid shelter, a tennis court, a small golf course and a horse track.
Around the courtyards are nine two-storey blockhouses for the Manchukuo Imperial Guard, and the entire complex was surrounded by high concrete walls.
Historical Development of the Museum of the Imperial Palace of the Manchu State
In 1934, the “Manchu State” was changed to “Great Manchurian Empire”, Puyi’s role of a “ruler” to “emperor”, and the era name “Datong” to “Kangde”. In Autumn of the same year, Huaiyuan Building and Qinyan Hall were built. 
From 1936 to 1938, Tongde Hall was completed. The Eastern Imperial Garden was initially completed with such architectural facilities as flower bed, rockeries and swimming pool.
In 1939, the air-raid shelter was completed. 
In 1940, Jiale Hall was completed. Puyi visited Japan for the second time and brought back the “Amaterasu” and made it the sate religion of the Manchukuo. “Jianguo Temple” was built in the southeast of Tongde Hall by following the style of the Naign Shrine of Japan. It was the special venue to sacrifice the “Amaterasu” which representing the imperial ancestors of Japan. 
On August 11, 1945, Puyi escaped in a hurry and “Jianguo Temple” was burned down, leaving only its foundation.
From 1945 to 1947, the palace was used by Songbei Unified School, and Qinmin Building and Huaiyuan Building were burned down. 
In 1948, the palace was used as the military camp of the 60th Army of Kuomintang and was seriously damaged. From 1949 to 1982, the palace was used by such units as First Auto Works Technical School, Jilin Cadre School of Culture, Jilin Provincial Cadre School, Jilin Agricultural Exhibition Center and Cadre Training Class of Public Security Forces.
In August 8, 1982, the palace was restored and opened to the public in 1984 after its western yard was refurbished. 
In October, 2001, Jilin Museum was relocated, and the complex in the eastern yard was allocated to the Museum of the Imperial Palace of Manchu State. On May 28, 2002, it was opened to the public after the first-phase refurbishment was completed. 

On August 8, 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan. Japan surrendered unconditionally on August 15, 1945. On August 18, the emperor of Manchu State announced abdication. On September 20, the Red Army of Soviet Union marched into Changchun and established the Garrison Command Headquarters. All ministers, together with Puyi, were arrested and taken to the Soviet Union, which marked the end of the 14-year puppet regime established by the Japanese imperialism.
After the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army fought as one against the Japanese. On September 20, 1945, under the leadership of Zhou Baozhong, Commander of Instructive Brigade of the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army and Secretary of the CPC Northeast China Committee, a list of soldiers marched into Changchun and helped the Soviet Union’s troops take over the puppet regime, with the armed forces of the people and the democratic regime established. Liu Juying, Director General of the Shandong Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Secretary General of the People’s Government of Shandong Province, was appointed mayor of Changchun City by the CPC Central Committee Northeast China Bureau on November 8, 1945. And on October 19, 1948, Changchun was liberated peacefully. 

Changchun has experienced three development periods since it was liberated peacefully on October 19, 1948. 
I. Transformation to a Production-oriented City 
Changchun was the center of Japanese colonial rule in Northeast China, with prosperous businesses, restaurants, hotels and as well as various “clubhouses” purposefully built for the institutions and officials of the puppet regime. In addition to some construction businesses and makers of building materials, the publication, match, flower, oil, liquor, food, tobacco and other producers of consumer goods constituted the major part of industrial production. It could be defined as a typical consumption-oriented city. For more than two years of administration under Kuomintang, Changchun remained as a consumption-oriented city.
After 1948, the CPC Changchun Municipal Committee and the People’s Government of Changchun City decided to transform Changchun from a consumption-oriented city to a production-oriented one. Four years of hard work restored the city’s economy and brought it to a new stage of development. The output value of state-operated enterprises increased by 4.3 times in 1952 from 1949’s record; that of collective-owned enterprises increased by 20 times; and that of private enterprises went up by 2.6 times. The economic structure of Changchun City changed substantially as the national economy grew stronger after it getting back on track, thereby forming a socialist economic system that was pillared by stated-operated economy, supported by collective economy and supplemented by private economy. The rapid development of state-operated economy laid a solid foundation for the transformation to a production-oriented city. In the first Five-Year Plan period, the First Automobile Works (FAW) went operational, followed by a list of state-operated enterprises. Driven by the central enterprises, local enterprises developed rapidly, leading to the transformation to a production-oriented city from a consumption-oriented one.   
II. Transformation to an Open City 
After twists and turns of development, Changchun started transforming to an open city. However, things changed when the second Five-Year Plan was implemented. The national economy became imbalanced due to the impact of “leftist” thoughts, which in turn lowered the speed of industrial and agricultural production. After three years of adjustment, the industrial and agricultural production of Changchun City went upward, but the speed was slowed down again during the “Cultural Revolution” period. After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, Changchun entered into a new era of development due to its insistence on economic construction, reform and opening up. After 1978, Changchun broken through the closed-off management system and established a city management mode with Changchun as center, counties as linkage and rural areas as foundation. This increased the city’s influence and attractiveness and meanwhile made it more open, thereby becoming to an open city.    
III. Transformation to a Modern International City
In line with the decision made by the CPC Changchun Municipal Committee after summarizing the evolutionary experience of Changchun City, effort will be put into creating Changchun a modern international city within about 30 years. The CPC Changchun Municipal Committee has decided to take three steps, namely, foundation creating stage from 1993 to 2000, development stage from 2001 to 2015, and improvement stage from 2015 to 2020, to achieve the strategic goal of making Changchun such an important city in Asia-Pacific economic rim and even in the world economy that has highly developed market economy, highly advanced spiritual civilization, highly effectively infrastructure, high level management and high quality ecological environment.  
Cultural Relics under National-level Protection in Changchun City 
Eighteen items at eight sites featuring the typical characteristics from Bronze Age, Dynasties of Liao and Jin, the Puppet Manchurian Regime to the early period of new China in Changchun City were selected by the State Council as the seventh list of cultural relics protected at national level in 2013. The immovable cultural relics include Wujiazi Historical Site in Shanhe Sub-district Office of Shuangyang District; Lanyou Wupo Historical Site at Danchengzi Village, Biangang County of Dehui City; Nong’an Pagoda in Nong’an Township of Nong’an County; Ji-Chang Dao Yingong Shu in Changchun; Museum of the Imperial Palace of Manchu State and the military and political institutions of the puppet Manchurian regime covering such historical sites of the puppet Manchurian regime as Imperial Palace of Manchu State, State Council, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Agricultural Development, Ministry of Culture and Education, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Japanese Army Headquarters; the Central Bank of Manchu State; Changchun Film Studio; and FAW’s buildings built in the first Five-Year Plan period.